Hernia is the abnormal squeezing out of an organ or fatty tissue through a weak spot of the wall of the cavity where it normally resides. A hernia can be caused by pressure and a weakness or opening of the muscle or fascia where the pressure pushes the organ or tissue through the weak spot or opening. Anything that cause an increase in pressure in the abdomen can cause hernia, which may include coughing or sneezing persistently, constipation or diarrhea, lifting heavy objects, etc. Poor nutrition, smoking, obesity are some factors that can cause muscle weakness and make hernias more likely. Other risk factors for hernia include COPD, pregnancy, peritoneal dialysis, etc.
Hernias most commonly develop in the abdomen, specifically the groin. A weakness in the abdominal wall can evolve into a localized hole or defect, and through this defect the abdominal organs or adipose tissue may protrude. Hernias can be of different types. Hernias may not be life threatening, but they don't go away unless treated. Hernia surgery may be required to prevent potentially dangerous complications.
In Laparoscopic Surgery or Keyhole Surgery the surgeon uses an instrument called a laparoscope. The laparoscope is a thin instrument that uses light at the end of the scope. The laparoscope is passed through small incisions (two to four) made at the abdominal wall. As opposed to Conventional surgery or open surgery, where a large cut is made at the abdominal wall, laparoscopic surgery or keyhole surgery uses very small incisions, and hence the name Keyhole Surgery. It is also called Minimal Access Surgery or Minimally Invasive Surgery